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10 December 2012
Some useful vocabulary (part III)


International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an independent
group of scientific experts providing consultancies and recommendations on assuring
protection of public and personnel of nuclear industry from ionizing radiation.


Activated substances

Substances which become radioactive ones as a result of long-term exposure by
neutron flow, e.g. in nuclear reactor or accelerator.


Biological protection

Mass of absorber material (e.g. thick concrete walls) located around reactor or
radioactive material to reduce exposure (especially by neutrons and gamma-rays
accordingly) to a level safe for public.



Material, e.g. light or heavy water or graphite, used in the reactor to moderate fast
neutrons by means of collision with lighter nuclei to promote further fission.


Vitrified waste

High level waste enclosed in borosilicate glass to fix radionuclides in insoluble, stable
matrix appropriate for disposal.



Atomic form of element having specific number of neutrons. Different isotopes of
element have the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons, thus
different mass, e.g. U-235, U-238. Some isotopes are unstable and decay generating
then isotopes of other elements.



Atom electrically charged because of neutron loss or acquisition.


Ionizing radiation

Radiation (including alpha particles), having an ability to break chemical binding, thus
causing matter ionization through which it passes, and damaging living tissue.